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What is Apache Kafka? | Apache KafkaTutorial for Beginners | Updegree

17 views | 10 Feb. 2021

In this video, we are

In this video, we are going to discuss What is Apache Kafka? This Apache Kafka Tutorial for Beginners will help you to understand what is Apache Kafka and its features

What is Apache Kafka

Apache Kafka is an open-source distributed event streaming platform used by thousands of companies for high-performance data pipelines, streaming analytics, data integration, and mission-critical applications.



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What is Database Sharding?

490 085 views | 7 Aug. 2018

Sharding a database is a

Sharding a database is a common scalability strategy used when designing server side systems. The server side system architecture uses concepts like sharding to make systems more scalable, reliable and performant.

Sharding is horizontal partitioning of data according to a shard key. This shard key determines which database the entry to be persisted is sent to. Some common strategies for this are reverse proxies.

Database interviews ask for concepts like sharding to make databases more performant and available. This makes horizontal partitioning a logical choice.

Horizontal vs. Vertical partitioning: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18302773/what-are-horizontal-and-vertical-partitions-in-database-and-what-is-the-differen

Consistent Hashing:








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#database #sharding #systemdesign

Nikhil Panchal

Cassandra uses consistent hashing out of the box to reach the shard that contains the data you're looking for. It uses the partition key part of the primary key

Nic Miranda

"indexing is cute" lol

Joe Ral

0:53 The way everyone gets excited when they hear "you're hired". LOL

Nikhil Rao

Nice video . Keep going young man .



Deepak Singh

Hi Gaurav,
Your videos are really very helpful. Apart from videos the references you have provided are mind blowing. Thank you so much.

Prem Suman

1:52 Gaurav: We couldn't eat the entire pizza by ourselves
Me, hungry AF, preparing for an interview, and watching this while eating an entire pizza by myself: ?

Rahul Kapoor

that poor guy who gets the 0th slice :P


Darun ☺️..


Bro your pizza analogies always make me hungry. I am binging on your channel

Ganesh Futane

i'm not into databases, but leaving a like for your passion!!!

Ankit Kumar Singh

loved the initial 50s part.

Deepanjan Sengupta

I am a Civil Engineer, watching these videos, after getting frustrated learning Python for Data Science. And I am feeling hopeful. Thank you so much Gaurav.

Sakshi Singh

Hi gaurav,
please make videos on API from scratch and btw your videos are lit:)

NOOB Ninja

First thing, i will never call my friend to help me finish the pizza, i can eat the pizza alone???
thanks a lot for such an awesome content for free

Bisrat Aw

boy the interview part is funny

Zaid Shaikh

And likely so a pizza ad popped on this video from Zomato.

Manuel Pamplona


Sriharsha Samana

You have made it look easy! Thanks bro. I want to hear more from you :)

Akanksha Garg

God I so miss eating Pizza in pre-lockdown days!! I have just started watching your videos for an upcoming interview and I am finding them quite useful. Thank you so much :)


These kind of interview is really scary

Phil Schmidt

Thank you!

Rajveer Singh

I Dont know, Can we Multiple tables, Instead of Multiple Servers???

Muhammed Irshath

Man the way you said "Sharding" in the beginning statement makes me crack

Indrajit Rajtilak

Nice outro, Gaurav!

Matt DeLuco

Really great explanation, thank you!


man you are so funny in the beginning, I can't stop laughing. your expression after getting hired man. lol

shraddha jagdale

Superb explained

Anurita Rawat

Thank you soo much bhaiya your video helped me crack the interview in LinkedIn ??? I don't know how to thank you , you are the best.

Tech & Art

It's very good explanation

Pratik Parikh

The ending statement, That was the best

Shivam Tiwari

The topics covered were organized,relevant to me, and easy to follow . I loved it so much

Gopalakrishnan S

Thanks for the excellent training! What is the solution for the joins across shards?

spas zahariev

I recently found your channel and I just want to say I love your work. Thanks for creating fun informative content like this


It will be nice you have course on Udemy :D

Muhammed Irshath

Btw what do you specialise in?

Arun Raj

03:18 that database is over his hand??


By watching your Videos on System Design so far, I can tell you really love Pizza. Anyways, thanks for posting such informative videos. Love your content.

Subham Kumar

So in this pizza example, say we want to add more data than can be kept in already existing servers, does Vertical Scalability mean increasing the capacity of those already existing servers and Horizontal Scalability mean adding more servers?


I actually did that?

Sushmita Joshi

You explain such complex topics really well?. Enjoying learning :-D

Ansuman Pati

Done with the video, ordering pizza now! Not applying sharding there ;)

ayaskanta ratha

Indexing is cute yeah I was once telling all bookish shit in one GE interview then the interviewer told just leave all this tell me something from your real experience I spoke 4-5 experience including sharding of data that’s it I was through

Bipul Kumar Sharma

"What is sharding" sounded like "What is physics" from BBT

Neha Ambasta

00:45 :')

Ellie Sakhaee

Came here for sharding, stayed for the pizza!! Now I'm hungry!

Louis Duran

Coloring #4 DB figure black and red... Attention to detail.

Nazmul shahrear Phyal

you are so funny..

Nannan AV

@Gaurav Sen You seriously underestimate us when you say we can't have an entire pizza by ourself..! xD


Who says I can't eat a whole pizza :P

Shuvo Sarker

You look like Pie Patel from above and Bear Grylls from below.


"Let's say you have a pizza" This guy's a genius. Thumbs up for helping us relate with an actual example.

kedi kebba


Harshad Rajan

love how you low-key slip the like and subscribe in at the end!

Kshitiz Sharma

You are simply amazing man.
I used to dread system design, but just because of you, slowly getting comfortable with it.
I have actually allotted a particular share of my daily todo, just to watch your videos everyday.

Arjun Manoj

For the first time in life I'm actually enjoying theory

Krishna Gubili

Very simply explained.

amit kumar

thanx gaurav. great way of explanation.

Stargate 1900

Am I hearing you correctly? Are you saying “master” and “slave” or are my ears hearing wrong?

ruchi rai

Amazing :)

Komaljeet Rambarun

IMO source/replica databases will be much easier to handle.

Subham Kumar

Did I understand it right?
Sharding is breaking the existing data into pieces on the basis of some key and distributing it to various database servers while Horizontal Scaling is increasing the number of servers to accommodate more data


Hi love your videos!! Can anyone point me to a video of his that explains memchache?


Great video!

Shravya Ramesh

indexing is cute xD

Prateek Pardeshi

0:53 that look :D

raman shrivastava

thanks, :D

Tathagat Jha

I just can't have any more pizzas ever in my life without thinking about sharding, load balancing, consistent hashing, messaging queues, and what not! :(


Last line is ethusiastically official way of building interest in users...very well explained sir.

Elon Musk

In which university did u study ???

Anurag Sharma

I am an Oracle database developer. I loved your content man. Learned something new today. Thanks.

Greetings from your new subscriber.???

Ellen C

I don't know how I didn't come across your videos before! What an easy way to learn, well done mate!!


Hi gaurav, how does replication effect sharding as you mentioned the point of consistency. If i have a M-S model where the write updates are propogated asynchronously to read slaves it is eventually consistent. Incase the updates are synchronous it's a performance hit because the master confirm's the commit only after the log replication and what if the slave I/O just got suspended for maintenance.


Bad video... I can’t understand the example... call friends over, this is where he lost me :(. Send help

Jk it’s a great video. I’m preparing for my amazon onsite interview... thanks so much for this

Crazy Techs

I would throw the rest of pizza in trash ..that is my way of handling pizza?


This was actually helpful .


lol - Indexing is Cute.... but getting Serious !!!


i knew computer programmers were slavers!

mayank dargan

I guess you like pizza too much :p

praful singh

Good explanation as always!! Just a suggestion, this is a pretty huge topic with lots of trade-offs and complexities, which could have been discussed (may be in follow up videos). Example being, the suggestion to use master slave architecture for replication, that itself comes with ton of complexities in real world scenarios.

I personally found this blog post (https://www.brianstorti.com/replication/) very informative for understanding various replication scenarios.
but it was pretty huge :( , and that's where videos could have helped.


Vibhor Sharma

Bhaai toone toh rock kar diya, thank you , love you

Saiprasad Duduka

After watching all your videos, one thing I got to know about you is - YOU DEFINITELY LOVE PIZZA!

Ayush Aggarwal

Beautifully explained, keep up the good work, hope to meet you one day in person.

Ibrahim Shaikh

Optimizing query is old school ?

DataSurgeon 369

Brilliant Intro. Lmao

Snehil Tripathi

Actually, I can eat the whole pizza by myself.

Rishi Upadhyay

"Even more difficult than sharding is to hit the like and the subscribe buttons at the same time"
And yes completely forgot to mention, The face you made hearing "Hired"....
You're gonna give the actors a good competition man!????

Riva Nathans

"Indexing is cute, but...we're looking for something serious. We've got a lot of data."

"Sir, can we use a NoSQL da-"

"NO" :'D

aman gupta

What happens when the master which failed earlier, comes back to normal operations? Does it regain its role as master or become slave of new master?

Ano Nymous

Hi Gaurav, thank you for you video. Could you make a video on how to do sharding with foreign keys?

Jay Kakkad

Amazing video! I have a small query. How can we add more to data to out database if its fixed sharded. If we use hierarchal sharding, are we randomly going to convert one sharded server to hierarchal when needed? If so how?

Again thanks for sharing amazing content!!!!....

Urunov Times

Oh my goodness, keep going again so nice.

Really awesome.

Sumit Yadav

2:55 i saw what u did here

Señor Poodles

Wow, worst interviewer ever.

Sahil Khan

Liked the video in the first minute, came over here to comment and then continue the video.

a kr

Your expressions in the initial act were better than most star kids like ananya pandey ?


Amazing explanation on database sharding, thank you for sharing.

Mikhail Sloushch

Looked some of your videos and seem like you are all about pizza)

chandan choubisa

indexing is cute.. dude u got me there... LOL

Usha Kumari

I was so seriously listening suddendly an example of pizza came -_- p.s. just kidding...u r awesome Gaurav

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Sony Z9D Series 4K HDR With Android TV Smart HDTV - XBR-65Z9D XBR-75Z9D XBR-100Z9D - Overview

41 865 views | 18 Aug. 2016

Shop for the Sony 65 Z9D

Shop for the Sony 65 Z9D 4K HDR Smart HDTV at Abt: http://www.abt.com/product/102974/Sony-65-Z9D-4K-HDR-With-Android-TV-Smart-HDTV-XBR65Z9D.html?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_campaign=XBR65Z9D_20160818

Unrivaled picture quality.

The all-new Backlight Master Drive™ can display an unprecedented dynamic range with near perfect black levels and dazzling brightness that is impossible for other TVs to reproduce. How Discrete LED Control: Backlight Master Drive uses a new innovative algorithm to control the TVs ultra-dense LED structure. Each LED is controlled individually for a picture even more precise than that of a standard full-array TV which groups LEDs into larger zones. Calibrated Beam Design: Send light only where it is needed. Each LED emits a straight beam for greater brightness and more accurate contrast than ever before.

Everything should look like 4K HDR

Our newly developed 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme outperforms our conventional 4K Processor X1 with 40 more real-time image processing power. It takes everything you watch and improves it to near 4K HDR quality . Object-based HDR Remaster technology can detect analyze and optimize each object in the picture individually to adjust the overall contrast for a more natural and realistic picture on screen.

Backlight brilliance.

Experience greater brilliance in every scene. X-tended Dynamic Range PRO utilizes the discrete LED control of Backlight Master Drive to create images with brighter peaks and more shadow detail. When combined with HDR video X-tended Dynamic Range PRO increases the quality of HDR so you experience even greater color and contrast.

Uncover the detail with 4K HDR

High Dynamic Range (HDR) will change the way you look at TV. Combined with 4K Ultra HD resolution HDR video content delivers exceptional detail color and contrast with a far wider range of brightness than other video formats. The result is the most lifelike picture TVs have ever been able to create with brilliant highlights and fine detail.

Clear picture smooth gradations

Sunsets are as bright and clear as real life. Super bit mapping 4K HDR a feature of the 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme reveals thousands of shades and gradations of light. It creates a smooth natural picture as you watch without the banding that can occur on other TVs. 14-bit signal processing recognizes subtle color transitions and effectively smooths out the gradation between shades to show 64 times the color levels of a conventional display.

More color depth and realism

Colors are as rich and vivid as natures own thanks to the TRILUMINOS Display with more shades of red green and blue than ever before. Youll enjoy vibrant authentic images that evoke the emotion in every scene. When combined with HDR video TRILUMINOS Display further increases the color depth for noticeably brighter and more realistic colors.

Upscale to a more natural picture

The difference is clear. Youll see lifelike detail and stunning clarity no matter what youre watching. Two powerful image improvement databases work together dynamically improving images in real time. 4K X-Reality PRO™ upscales images to near 4K clarity while a second database cleans the picture and reduce on-screen noise . Every single pixel is enhanced beautifully by the powerful 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme.

A sophisticated slate design

From the front the design exudes sophistication in the form of a simple black slate letting viewers immerse themselves in the stunning power of 4K HDR (High Dynamic Range). The design features premium gold finish and keeps all of your cables completely concealed ensuring that the TV strikes an elegant look from any angle. The Z9D comes in a 65 75 or 100 Class to fit even the grandest room.

Smart home automation

Beyond streaming content Sonys Android TV platform allows Home Automation control directly from the TV via the Logitech Harmony Hub. IoT (internet of things) devices such as lights thermostats Blu-ray™ players security cameras other home entertainment devices can be controlled and automated via the push of a button on the TVs remote.

Just say what you want

Spend less time browsing and more time watching. Voice search on Android TV™ provides you with the power of Google search in 42 languages allowing you to find content across different services without the hassle of time-consuming text entry.

John Moore

Swallow less during shoots.

D-Nasty's Noise

Do you know the input lag time for gaming?

Fuori da un evidente destino

Better this or samsung un ks9000?


best buy is selling the 75 inch on sale for there 50 yrs in business for 8995

Tony Montana

If you want a dark picture, afterglow and burn in, go with OLED. If you want curved banana design with terrible angle of view, blooming and halo effects, go with samsung. The Sony ZD9 television beats with ease all the other flagships. By far the best tv on the market. Believe me. I always tell the truth. Even when I lie.

Walter D Wormack

Sony's Z9D Series TV Sets, are DEFINITELY, the TV set I want!


I could no longer wait for LG display to make another 3D OLED panel, so I bought a used 75Z9D. Fortunately 3D and 4K technologies overlapped and this has both! You cannot sit too close to this TV when watching 1080p blu-rays on an Oppo 203. Skin tones are wonderful. Blacks are better than my Kuro. In dark scenes there is no difference inside and outside the letterbox in 2.40:1 movies.

Konna Bonna

zd9 is GREAT, no doubt. But not for the 5000€/USD price point.
No-go,but thx anyways.

Viktor K.

Smooth gradation is not a new toy, since earlier SONY TVs from W range knew that too... It's just a marketing bullshit as always...

bob mccarthy

My viewing room requires the TV to be mounted high. You mentioned the view angle criticality side to side, is it also in the up-down direction.Or should I just buy a OLED.


14 bit!!?? ???


If you are a Sony Z9D owner, come join the Facebook group! Search for Grand Order of the Z9D!


Does this tv come with its own Sony wall mount bracket (like the X930D and X940D)? Thanks


I want this so bad. Nice job on review.


Is the Sony Z9D screen supposed to lean/tilt back? Thank you


Sony still has a lot to work on

Vincent Van Gamer

between the Master Drive and the X1 Extreme chip I'd be stupid to settle for the X940D at this point. That and I need my 3D.

D-Nasty's Noise

Release date?

Always VIRAL

Sony bumlick


Cool video...Actually, I am still holding on to my old rear projection. The short version of a long story... Turns out Sony had a recall on my 60A2000 for broken optical block. I would learn later that instead of an actual recall, they just did discounts for a new tv. Soooooo... Now, I am in the market for a new tv. I like the z series and I am okay with waiting until the price in the poor people's budget. lol... Of course, by then, new technology will be out....lol....

Nicholas Jarrett

the LG G6 is hands down the best tv we will see for a while oled screens don't lose much picture for side viewing and why would you want to pay $6000 for this sony and still can't produce perfect blacks the LG G6 covers 96% of the color gambit and is HDR-10 and Dolby vision certified what more can you ask for


I still have a flagship pioneer elite 60 inch but I know its time to upgrade but till now nothing compares but this new 75 inch is the new flagship

D-Nasty's Noise

Why did Sony ditch passive 3d for active? Makes no sense.

Jack Farias

does it have Dolby vision


Want it for sure but that price :(

Ashi Khan

YAY!! Got the Dolby Vision update on my Z9D, last night!!


OLED master race checking in. Does this have 0.1ms response time? You said "NEAR OLED", exactly, its near it, not beating it any time soon. Thanks bye.


isso aqui custa 50.000 reais mds caro dms!

aundra lambert

you mean for $9,000 if you sit off from the center of this tv the picture start to look bad/washed out.  that's crazy!! I will not be buying it


Has any one put this against lg g6 I want the best piture I have already seen the e6 at bestbuy best tv I ever seen? the 55 e6 is a little over $3000.00 not sure if spending $6000.00 is worth it having a brighter tv don't make you the best tv! I almost have the money for the e6 55 will the zd9 beat the piture of lg oled of 2016 I don't care about how bright the piture is I just want the best tv can any one help me choice thanks


Well I was going to by a an X9400D 75" last weekend but I heard about this so I held off to find out more.
Have to admit I am a bit confused now,
In our market master-drive is available on the X9300 and I think the 2016 8500 range.
I was under the impression that the local dimming back light array on the 9400 range was premium Sony tech even though master-drive is newer.
I thought master-drive was a new way of processing edge back lighting.
Could anyone set me on the right path with all this?

World Star

Just because of that, I am waiting for the NEXT flagship. Hey SONY, If you reading this you should make OLEDs before 2020 Olympics since its going to be in JAPAN #justsaying

Rich De Guzman

Where are the wall mount points in the back? I didn't see this when you took of the back panel.