Pascal coin value

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Making Probability Mathematical | Infinite Series

120 124 views | 13 Jul. 2017

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Written and Hosted by Kelsey Houston-Edwards

Produced by Rusty Ward

Graphics by Ray Lux

Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow

Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)

Resources and Special thanks:


Kolmogorov - Foundations of the Theory of Probability

Ian Hacking - The Emergence of Probability

Throughout much of human history, people consciously and intentionally produced randomness. They frequently used dice - or dice-shaped animal bones and other random objects - to gamble, for entertainment, predict the future and communicate with deities. Despite all this engagement with controlled random processes, people didn’t really think of probability in mathematical terms prior to 1600. All of the ingredients were there -- people had rigorous theories of geometry and algebra, and the ability to rig a game of dice would have certainly provided an incentive to study probability -- but, there’s very little evidence that they thought about randomness in mathematical terms.

Challenge Winner:



Comments answered by Kelsey:

Ja-Shwa Cardell


Ef Ts

Unfortunately very very basic. It's good for kindergarden pupils, though. Thanks for wasting my time!


7:13 the point (1/2 , 1/2) does not lie on a circle with radius 1/sqrt(pi) so it actually is impossible.

Michael K

can you do an episode on Mirzakhani? thanks. <3


The problem of this version of game theory they take out the skill and free will of the gamer.

Rob Bird

Kolmogorov is easily one of the top 3 mathematicians of all time.


You should make a video on Bayes' Theorem. It is crucial for the understanding of the scientific method.


Your take on Gödel's incompleteness theorems would be interesting.


Why exactly must the chance you hit (x, y) with a dart be zero? If you were to integrate all the probabilities over the entire dartboard you'd get a total chance of hitting the board equal to 0, which is weird.

Nick Grimm

A paradox arises from requesting an infinitely small area from a granular universe.

Michael Halbhuber

Good darts players would be aiming for tipple 20 not bulls eye.

Raymond K Petry

Probable, also means probe-able, testable, deterministic (which is generally taken as an antonym when meant totally), e.g. Can you probe a jar for cookies, depends on whether your hand fits its mouth, whether there are cookies in the jars, etc. This is mathematics: that statements are logical, and, arithmetical, and the consistency is left as homework...

Armand Alegg

My favourite aspect of probability is knowing how often I'll hit a straight or flush draw when the other players at the table have no clue

Azul Reyes

This channel always motivates me to study more math, sometimes school cant keep me interested enough, although I love math.

Jack Black

well, the probability that she reads this comment on such an old video is zero


It's weird that PBS has to put advertising here, it sucks. Damn republicans.


I have just come across your videos, and find them very informative. i wonder if you have ever done a video on what is sometimes called "The Monty Hall Game Show problem" Thanks for the excellent video.

Paul Brassington

The fundamental principle of probability is that as time goes by the probability does not change. If I have spun 5 heads in a row, we all shout that the next spin is 50/50, year 7 shout out. So why is it that when one studies those who are banned from casinos the common thread is 'missing outcomes'.

Mark Hardwick

9:22 you just gave a depiction of how the cortex learns a skill (except it does have a lovely reversable characteristic too it)


Do you perhaps have another channel on which you post more stuff?

Steven Massey

Please more videos like this!

özge özçelik

understanding nntaleb's tweets and MOOCs

Mike Young

I completely missed this when it first appeared due to what I think was insanity. I'm not sure the insanity is over but I just wanted to say that I think there is a hidden secret in coin flipping. It might even be tied to universe being a simulation. But remember, I'm not sure the insanity is over.


Somewhat Ironic how they talk about probability on a channel called infinite series. After all probability and statistics don't really apply to infinite series


Kelsey, ,great episode, and thanks for pointing out the man-bun should be no more. Unless you're Toshiro Mifune!

Ashley Tsui

Pascal is wrong. There's an opportunity cost in believing in God. You lose your freedom to dictate your own value and life direction. You'll be literally enslaved by a doctrine that's likely just a myth. The time and dedication needed to practice the religion will be forever gone. I see ZERO return on investment in this particular reasoning.

Sambhranta Gupta

Bayes theorem

cade spaulding

Imagine you choose a number from 0-1 and the number you choose is the probability of some number to be one suppose the first number is one what is the chance of the next one to be one


If there are an infinite amount of exact points on the board, why doesn't that mean the probability of hitting one is infinitesimally small but not 0? Cause with the other examples like 1/4 the area fits on the board 4 times, with 1/2 it fits twice, so I was like if it fits on the board infinite amount of times it'd be 1/infinity? I'm just a layman so forgive me if I'm being stupid

Merilin Alu

I don't understamd math at all but i'm trying to save something because final exams are this year

Glenn Hamblin

Craps is my favorite thing about probability!?

Fact Sheet

Well it's not rational to believe in God, since in most major religions, the greater sin than to not believe in God, is to believe in a false God, and since we can't know which God is the real God, its more rational to not believe at all in a God.

Mbruno Ferreira

I suppose probabilities is basic to quantum computations.

Eve Kohley

so "Pascal's Wager" is basically the "it'd cost you exactly $0.00 to be kind" meme


I can't get over the idea that the probability of hit a point is Zero!!

Mbruno Ferreira

Beautiful women. Thank you for being explaining maths!

Josh LZK

I think of probability as a mathematical limit. Like, as the number of attempts N approaches infinity, the ratio of the number of times an event happens to N approaches the probability of the event occurring per attempt.

Probably not mathematically correct, but that's just the way it seems to me.

Dragon Curve Enthusiast

4:43 What about squares that are places in a city? Like a town's square or times square?


I (we) miss you


Can you do an episode on prime gaps?

Dave Jacob

why is the probability of hitting a point not "one over infinity"?

Pawan Khasbage

probability of a probability is that its a probability

This account is dead

I'm genuinely interested in morality and patterns of ethics and the probability of acceleration I guess? (and music)

Horrid Henry256

Quantum mechanics


be there or be square came about because if you're not there you're not "a round". also it rhymes

Cracked Emerald

OMG... are humans normally THAT white? never seen IRL

P Schlösser

Love how, at 4:13 neither of the pictures shows Algebra or Geometry (Geometry that deals with constructions, that is)


if a 0% probability doesn't guarantee that it won't happen, does a 100% probability not guarantee that it will happen?

Big Papa

Hmm ? Of the tens of thousands of gods created by man... On which one of those shall I place my wager? Please advise!

Snowball Effect

I had no idea that probability has had so many rigors apply to it so relatively recently.

Mark Smith

Continuous probability is a mathematical fantasy- useful for handling extremely short portions of possibility but really everything has a measure. A bad blind throwing dart player will not (if he hits the board at all) hit every point will equal probability (not that it really is the point of the exercise) depending on whether he is left/right handed and positioned relative to the board will introduce a consider bias to the placement of the darts- if LH then hitting more on the right and if below more on the higher part.

Nikolay Cherednychenko

My favorite aspect is it's predictive power

Michael Farese

Wow. Intelligence is so sexy.


Thank for all the good you do.

I would like to learn more about
1. linear algebra (matrix calculations, algorithms, egen values, egen vector and so on)
2. fft or discrete fft (way and how it works, how to preserve amplitudes and so on)
3. approximating curves with sums of sin functions (how to kompres images using sums of sin)

I know these are topics for engeners and I use some of them every day. But I only know them good enough to used dem. I want to have a better understanding of them. And I believe these are topics many people would benefit from know.

Have a nice day.


In the video after this, you mention probability paradoxes.

This is a compilation of my favorites: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-most-interesting-or-popular-probability-puzzles-in-which-the-intuition-is-contrary-to-the-solution/answer/Alon-Amit?srid=uB1Fo

Rob Kandell

Pascal’s Wager missed the obvious that he was not wagering on the existence of God, but rather the claims of an earthly institution threatening him with eternal torture for failure to accept their claims to Divinity. His loss is the loss is the waste of a human lifetime lived in fear to anyone making a large enough overbet coupled with the sociopathy to carry out horrific acts of violence like the Inquisition, Salem Witch Trials, etc.

“...I have hardly met a mathematician capable of reason.” — Plato

Philosophically, Descartes was an idiot, too.


When you start talking about the dart board and hitting a single point on that dart board: you need to properly define that point. If you expressly mean hitting exactly a 0-dimensional point and no other points around it, then that is impossible...but it's also somewhat redundant to mention.
If however, you mean that each point is infinitesimal in size (and this is typically what people do mean, as they are dividing the board into an infinite number of sections), and that the dart head is of a comparable size (i.e. also infinitesimal as already stated in the video), then the probability of hitting any specific point becomes the proportion of that point to the overall size of the board which is infinitesimal and clearly non-zero. Applying a real number field to this type of maths where you either take limits or involve certain types of infinities/infinitesimals is erroneous. Instead you should be applying a number field that includes these things as numbers (e.g. the surreal number field), which would lead to much less confusion over such things as inaccurate approximations are no longer used.

Connor McCranie

ET cetera. not ex etera

Mike Guitar

I think the sort of numbers that engineers and physicists use, with a "margin of error", and "significant digits", imply a 1-dimensional interval, at least on the marginal part.

The way that mathematicians use transcendental numbers, like "Real" decimals, seems analogous to the physics of wave-particle duality. A photon travels as a (higher dimensional) wave but interacts as a particle (at a 0-D point). Similarly a transcendental decimal transcends 0-dimensions and like a wave it can potentially intercept a range of points. Sure it may collapse to a single point, but this is a bit like the wave function collapsing. It's very interesting the way both of these examples cross dimensions, so to speak. It definitely serves a particular purpose in this way.


Let's talk about focal points!


The Riemann Hypothesis could be a great subject for here. Seen some great videos about it, think you can do it better ^^

Alan Givré

As a physicist, I'm all for Solovay Model. Down with axiom of election! Just joking, of course.


I was looking for something with more history to be fair. Especially the axiomatic approach of Kolmogorov's vs the limit approach for probability, and early origins of what happened afterwards.

Mike Totman

Did anyone else notice that the dice @6:10 are flawed? Opposite sides are supposed to add to 7 (1-6, 2-5, 3-4) but they have 5 and 6 opposite each other.


Pascal probably wasn't aware of the prisoners' dilemma in game theory when he thought about god.


I feel bad for the person who posed so happily to be called as "a boring and old fashioned person" XD

Joseph Osgood

I think pseudo-random number generators are interesting too. Have people studied the probability of those generators actually producing "random" numbers?


rubbish explanation

João Cé Steil

More episodes on probability plz!

Bhivek Singh

Phil Dunphy is not a square!

zen fire

Pascal's Wage is so childish - his God is childish. "Believe and I will reward you" - and what exactly is this 'believe in God' thing? It's just a feeling that "I hope this foolish God will reward me for pretending that I gave a shit about him , while in fact all I care about is to get my reward". How can all this greedy rationalization can have any relation at all with God ?Strange that he couldn't see how naive his notion of God was. It's an interesting example of how one's greed and fear can make him hallucinate and believe that he is in some way 'religious' . Nope, it's all just childish self-deception. I guess he failed to see it because his mind was conditioned in such a way that he thought 'believe+god=reward' is some kind of axiom, or a truth. In my opinion all these three concepts are juvenile: 1) believing in something you don't know, 2) god - I don't even know what this word means or could mean. From others descriptions he must be some kind of person or entity which rewards you infinitely if you bribe him 3)getting rewarded by someone you just believe(you don't actually know) exists.. and for what? for believing, hhahahh.
Anyway, I still love this guy Pascal... I have much to learn from him. Great video!

Hmm. I think his rationalization could be better worded this way: it's worth investing your time and energy in discovering and obtaining Freedom/Truth , because if there is such a thing, then becoming it is worth any sacrifice, and if there is no such thing, then all you do will go waste anyway, death will take everything and you'll turn into nothing, so why bother at all? :)) .


If I told my parents to pick one number each of the subset : natural numbers, what is the probability of them picking any number x? lim h -> infinity p(x) = 2/h, but surely there must be a mistake in our mathematics here, we are missing the actual operation that my parents will indeed pick a number.

yash ram

I may probably understand this in future :P

Antonio Lepe

This video should be shown at the first class of every probability course ...


Can you do a video on Minimum Description Length?

Kevin Kim

"Saying something has zero probability does not imply it's impossible."

Mind. Blown.

(Oh, and you forgot "town square"!)

Gera Sanz

Im in love... (withh all respect) of you as well of the content in this channel and every pbs channel! Cheers from Mexico!


My favorite part of probability?


Arthur Marcuss

I am really uncomfortable with the probability of hitting a point being 0. It seems like it should be an infinitesimally small value, not 0. Having a probability of zero DOES mean an event is impossible NOT improbable. If you disagree please do state the difference.


I've always thought probabillity isn't real. If we look at the darts example, we can (in theory) accurately calculate where a dart will hit if we take into consideration the relevent data (Player's strength, dart's direction and weight distribution, wind, coriolis effect, etc).

I do however find probability theory convenient for engineering.

fred tingey

Bayes Theorem is my favourite.

X Baron

"Infinitesimally small" doesn't mean "exactly a point". A point doesn't have an size, whereas an infinitesimal area does.


What is the probability that Kelsey is wearing that wedding ring to diminish the probability of random internet math nerds proposing?

Juan C Garnica

Can someone please suggest some nice books about probability and statistics for a physicist?. I tried with "Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics" (by Frederic Reif) but... I would like something more axiomatic, Reif just loves doing approximations :/


The dice at 1:10 are totally wrong. Opposite sides always have to add up to 7 in proper dice.


"saying something has probability 0, does not mean it's impossible"... yes it does; that is exactly what it means.

Luiz Max Carvalho

I concur with the claim that random variables are "coarse", though (9:55). With a little bit more work you could have defined a continuous bivariate distribution on the board that has the required measure and is as smooth as you like. Otherwise, great video! Keep up the great work!

Arjun Ariyil

Practically when you hit anywhere on dart board, you are simultaneously hitting a Planck area of points. So the probability of hitting any given point must be 1/(No. of plank Areas on the dart board) which is non zero. Just saying...

Rob Harwood

Since this video was about probability, and you mentioned that we want to make decisions rationally, I suggest doing a deeper exploration into this topic in a future video, and especially address Bayes' Theorem and Bayesian Reasoning.

In particular, the host, Kelsey, may enjoy reading E.T. Jaynes' book "Probability Theory: The Logic of Science", which develops a framework for Bayesian reasoning from the ground up. I'm currently watching a video lecture series 'reading course' of Jaynes' book, which helps lower the slope of the learning curve of the book. Search YouTube for 'Aubrey Clayton' or 'Probability Theory: The Logic of Science' to check it out. BTW: Jaynes, following R.T. Cox, develops the laws of probability without axioms, instead relying on an informal list of 'desiderata' which he formalizes in a general way, showing that Probability Theory is the only valid mathematical way to reason about 'plausibility'. This is an interesting alternative to Kolmogorov, and does not rely on Measure Theory.

Pajeet Singh

Bro why omit the origin of probability?
The earliest known forms of probability and statistics were developed by Arab mathematicians studying cryptography between the 8th and 13th centuries.
Most miracles originated in Levant.

Geraldo Niquini

Wow, now I can understand more Monte Carlo.

OS2 Payne, S.A Eisus Uni Peg Unix Payne

He will CARRY
1) Buddha on his back. Buddha thought that you were to avoid those who impeded your progress. When he became to fat to walk. They left him for he impeded their progress.
2) Allah is a clot in his ankle, Muhammad was a leetch and his teachings were not written down till years later so they are not his.
3) Shiva' rides on his calf. The worship the cow but it's his calf the deity rides that is holy, not the cow.
4) Confucius hangs from his chin
5) Christianity is a boil on his ass
6) he will have SAP on his back from the cross he was crucified upon
7) he will have God's wrath upon his knee, but his wrath has heart.
8) he will have kinky on his two feet for he is Kin too the Key; or holy and worthy of religious veneration.
9) The baha faith is a noose around his neck. The snake charmer.
10) he will have a gold fouled anchor with 7 links symbolic of uniting the world as one nation under Seven Seas. Extending the rights of Americans to the World.
A nation born in a day.
11) he will have True North Compass about him. A moral compass for the World to follow. It was written he would have great compassion but it's a poor translation. He will have Compass about him.

ALL are leeches on the body of christ. If you follow one religious path you all follow them all for Jesus Carrie's them all upon his body as proof to his identity. A gift from god.

I give you my body. It is covered in what look like scars but they're spiritual markings plain as day just like a tattoo.

God says to warm you before you get ate. Consumed as devil's food for having hate in your heart. 7 8 9
And OU812.

Murderous math. Killing the Son of God and steeling his book and recovering it making him an icon of the very religion he refused to convert to.
Taken by murder. A crimson stain of a blue blood.

Greating people of earth, I'm BACK

Ed Smiley

Favorite? It has to be the Monty Hall problem! It even bugged Paul Erdos, who was incredulous until running a computer simulation...

Ask Gram Franck

I'm interested in the use of elementary probability to aid in rational decision making.

Quantum Spice

As you mentioned that a countable set of Infinitesimal small points have 0 probability(7:42) well that somehow made sense but when I gave it a thought and took it to the extreme I ended up confused with this question

If we added Infinitely many infinitesimal small points all over the board, it would have 0 area thus 0 probability! But!
It is really obvious that we could hit these points 100% of the time since there are infinite of them Everywhere On the Board..

Thx for your amazing Channel ^_^

Marina Sangineto Jucá

Isn't the circle formed by many points? If so the some of all the points of an area should vê equal to it's area, so the some of the probability of multiplus points of an area should be equal to the probability of the dard being in some point of an area.
Like, we can say that a patch of 6 cookies is made of 1 cookie+ 1 +1+1+1+1, the somatory of the parts is equal to the total

Michael Hyre

OW! my brain....ok take a break come back OW! my friggen brain.

John Allsup

A next-door-neighbour subject is that of reasoning given only probabilities and events. That is, given that event A has happened, and a bunch of probabilities, what is the probability of event B?

Jose Vj

Only 100% and 0% probability remains true after the event has occurred that means whatever number you calculate it either happens or not so it's 100 or 0. Now why is probability important ?


If i'm waiting for somone to arrive for an appointment how long do i wait after the agreed time before i cut my losses?

David W. Smith

Etcetera is pronounced eht-SED-er-uhh, not ex-SET-er-uhh.

Correct pronunciation helps maximize the professionalism of your videos.

Pascal coin value

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Pascal's Wager

1 942 views | 23 Jun. 2013

A logical construct for

A logical construct for evaluating the choice between metals and paper.

The Human Podcast

currency was finally set up but I believe that a fiat burning situation would more likely lead to a bartering system that would take years to replace as it did in our history. The other simply is that $20 000 would be worth the same as $1200 dollars today... this would be again a extreme situation of hyperinflation and a “win” would be down to personal view point. That is all I have issue with. The video is of very high quality and I would love to have a bigger debate with you. As to rocky...


you know you're well versed when you're able to cite 17th century logical arguments from Pascal. wow! I'm continuing to love your videos, belangp! It's like I said before, I have always felt concepts like these in my gut but haven't put forth, to this degree the explicit philosophical assertions, historical references, research, etc. to support them, as you do. another great mind exercise! thanks for sharing, belangp.


You're right that I'm using his philosophy and not his mathematics Rocky. The application of the logical framework is fine so long as one understands the different purpose and different underlying assumptions. Nowhere in the presentation did I ever state anything like "God IS, therefore buy metals" :) Flexibility of thought is critical because there are no textbook formulas or recipes that will ever lead to success in the important things in life.


No hard feelings Rocky. We all have our trials in life and deal with them the best we know how. I deeply respect the devotion you show to your mother.

B. White

ping ping ping ping!

The Human Podcast

and his ego as I have seen in lower comment to be a doubter and a questioner makes him an outcast in some silver groups on this website and this to me is highly illogical if we live in a society where one persons views are seen and egotistical nonsense I would say that is one in which I would like to step out of. Finally lemmings do not kill themselves this was an idea wrongly accepted as far back as 1530s I believe they are an animal sadly dubbed suicidal if one goes they all go in fac...


Interesting perspective. I like the logical approach. It's reminiscent of Steven Covey's four quadrants of time management in his book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. There may be four choices, but when you examine all your options, there's really only one clear choice.


Not at all. Gold can adjust higher without a collapse in society (see my video "Gold is not an Armageddon Metal"). It is one of the only substances on earth that can do so, and that is why it is the ideal item to use as a store of wealth. Concluding that gold at $20K/oz would only occur in a world on fire is an assumption. Look at history. Wars tend to occur when paper currency (credit) is expanding relative to the stock of gold, not contracting.

B. White

Well maybe that comment wasn't necessary either, but there are a lot of great thinkers, and from different backgrounds in the metals and you just called the vast majority of them that subscribe to Belang as lemmings and you probably feel the same about your own subscribers? Not nice to this group of folks Rocky.


Don't mistake philosophy for theology. I disagree with his theology as well, but disagreeing with the theological premises does not make the logical framework that he applies invalid. Starting with a different set of premises and using the same logic can lead to useful conclusions.


You're welcome. I'm glad you liked it.

The Human Podcast

p.s rocky sent me to your video not to attack it which i hope i do not come across in that manner i mearly like to debate. he sent me it out of sheer respect for you and he thinks i would have enjoyed it and i did very well made and your intelligence shines through which makes the video very absorbing.


I look forward to it. Thanks for watching. I hope you'll take a look at some of my other videos, particularly "The Value of Gold" and "Gold is not an Armageddon Metal". Of course some of the earlier ones form the foundation of the argument. I don't think we need to go "Mad Max" for the metals to appreciate in value. I just think people need to change their minds with regards to what works and what doesn't.


Exactly! You said it much more elegantly than I did though because you were able to sum it up in many fewer words! Thanks for watching and I'm glad you liked it :)


You have to take a look at the stock of currency as it stands today. It serves a dual role, as medium of exchange AND store of value. Gold can be revalued upward to displace fiat's role as store of value. Fiat can lose one of its current functions and still exist in parallel to the metals. Fiat would still maintain value because of its network effect and mandated use in paying taxes. But then again, this is my assumption of how things might unfold and it's no more or less likely than yours.

The Human Podcast

to more of your content as you diserve more subs than you currently hold, i have also subbed to you. Keep up the interesting deductions and the high quality videos. i hope we get to speak soon. Gary


There is always a divergence between philosophy and mathematics. Mistaking one for the other is the easiest way to mislead oneself. Using the latter without the former is the easiest way to develop a very myopic view of the world.


I've been watching all of your archived videos, and learned a lot - but as a counter-apologetics buff I have to point out the logical issue with Pascal's Wager (it might have already been pointed out in the other comments) - it ignores the claims of existence of the thousands of other gods (or even, opposing denominations of Christianity) - in that case, the outcome is still very negative.


No, I get it. I like to debate ideas with open minded individuals. My hope is that more people will engage in intelligent debate on my channel. We have a system that is failing and another will need to take its place. Unfortunately monetary understanding has been lost over the past couple of generations and we need to get it back.


It's difficult to argue theology. It's a very personal choice. The problem theology often creates is that of confirmation bias. For psychological reasons people want others to agree with them to the point where they spend too much effort trying to prove to others that they've made the wrong choice if they disagree. ;)

The Human Podcast

t this is very far from the truth so if either of you intellectuals are going to speak about lemmings dont as this is just wrong poor little creatures. :) The only known living thing apart from us which commit suicide is bacteria in which they release a toxin into their own cells to benefit the entire species when dealing with overpopulation. ( I am a biology student) I don't use any big words in these comments so not to ostracise anyone from this debate. Very well made video i look forward


continued... and I do think if you watch again you'll find that there are no faulty or intentionally misleading premises (I'm more honest than that, at least I'd like to think so). I'm not sure why it was necessary to refer to me sarcastically as an "intellectual silverfish" or describe viewers as lemmings. Such an approach is an Argumentum ad Hominem, wouldn't you agree?

The Human Podcast

mind so must be golden( nice refference to metals ;) ) . His mathematics are solid his philosophy is not so that is main error you cannot justify one because of success in the other. I would argue for all intensive purposes his “logic” does not imply to the metal/fiat debate as there is not good or bad side visable. The belief that gold hit $20 000 would be a result of two realities. The world would be on fire rioters and preppers would be king as the 99% without would be poor and we would be


Gotta love a no brainer, huh? On another note, thanks again for the mention in your video the other day. My subscriber base doubled in just a day.


A fantastic application of the wager to or current economic & monetary troubles! I think the wager is valid in both realms of ultimate reality (i.e. God vs. no God), as well as where to place and/or preserve our wealth/purchasing power (Gold & Silver vs. paper money). As with my commitment to Christ, I would and have obviously placed my bet with the metals!

The Human Podcast

p.s inversters not inverters


I just got a vision of Will Farrell prancing around banging on a cowbell made of silver ;)

B. White

I don't think you realize how insulting you come across. You are not the only person on the planet that can think for himself Rocky. I don't know what caused your ego to inflate so high, but it would be helpful to release the valves if you know what I mean?

B. White

I just want to keep doubling down. I've got a fever, and the only prescription is more metal!


No, I'm sure it was you. My sub base tripled overnight. Thanks again!


And don't forget, all of the growth in the world appears to be happening in regions where the culture still values the metal over paper!

The Human Podcast

Rich beyond imagination. This idea is like a cancer in the silver community I have come to believe that some metal holders believe this to be a win situation however logically it would actually result in a massive reduction in population and average wealth. ( much like the lemmings oh yes I will return to those little guys) My theory in this situation is that the poor would attack the weak so many savers and inverters would be targeted so the metal would be worthless in all end results until a.


Thanks for joining and for viewing. I never intended to use his mathematics to support my case. I gave some introduction on the man to honor his accomplishments, not to lend credence to my application of his logical construct to the decision of whether to trust in the metals or paper. I can see how one might mistake my intent though.

Thrifty CHNR

The top right box is completely unrealistic.  Currency is NOT an investment.  Anybody that is optimistic of a country's economy would invest in stocks.
The right box should say "invested in common stock indices that create 6-7% returns per year"  This would totally demolish gold's historic returns.

BTW, I enjoy your videos, but I had to say it.

The Human Podcast

pascal theories in philosophy are logical is based on your personal view point; as a reader of higher philosophy many would shoot you down as his logic corrupt for many believers. The idea of believing in god and living your life to appease him in some religions is a requirement not a bet. Believe me when I say this as I have had many the heated debate with followers of Islam on this very argument. They would see that his argument is more like a pub comment made by someone with a brilliant....


thank you for another excellent vid !!! i got you point clearly... it is A or B... when some commenters (below) say "what about stocks, ect.", they forgot that other things are not workable forms of "money"... while stocks ect. might be a store of value, they are generally not divisible or perfectly fungible, ect. you were illustrating the situation of the two competing forms of "money" .... gold verses paper.... pascal was smart (and well educated)... and so are you !!!!!

Chaplain Dave Sparks

It's similar logic to buying insurance against a possible calamity. However ... I guess that a major portion of your income might be consumed by insuring against every possible calamity

The Human Podcast

Hello from Scotland this is my first comment in months as i am in return mode videos soon to follow :D. Good video very well made that is what rocky was making a joke at the intellectual silverfish was a joke not in bad taste as we both agree that regardless of content the video is made to a high standard. The main issue with this and I fall on Rocky's side on this is your are justifying a philosophers argument with mathematics he has done in the past. I believe this is a case occurring saying.

Pascal coin value

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Group theory 101: How to play a Rubik’s Cube like a piano - Michael Staff

1 419 262 views | 2 Nov. 2015

View full lesson:

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/group-theory-101-how-to-play-a-rubik-s-cube-like-a-piano-michael-staff

Mathematics explains the workings of the universe, from particle physics to engineering and economics. Math is even closely related to music, and their common ground has something to do with a Rubik's Cube puzzle. Michael Staff explains how group theory can teach us to play a Rubik’s Cube like a piano.

Lesson by Michael Staff, animation by Shixie.


I'm convinced this only appeared in my recommended because I have been working with Group Theory in Inorganic Chem -_- not a fan of it at all

Shawn Deer Williams

Pianists: I see this as an absolute win


Proud cuber and pianist here!

Lan Võ

4:37 tỷ 0:00 s
Alsleodosieirkrlrktldl4ôrua có fi ý,la

Christopher Sanders

This video was the most confusing TED-Ed video i have ever seen!

DANJYC Gaming!

i can solve it

Rishit Raj the Craft minded

Thanks Ted ed
Because of this video I completed my cube
शुक्रिया( Thanks in Hindi )

Uzma Ghazali

If only I could understand it completely, it would be amazing

Jka Khasik

Okay now tell me how to play a piano like a Rubik's cube

Jak Amith

When I heard permuatation I thought, oh, he's gonna teach some PLLs.

I was wrong.

Charley Keefe

This just made me so happy. :)

Adam Hallacher

3:17 as a musician this makes me cringe


I get how to solve Rubik's cube
All I have to to is to learn piano

321 123

I’ve studied group theory and I’ve studied piano and music theory I still don’t understand it

Ardian Putra

Did I see CIA?!?!


Cool video! But...

Just learn CFOP, it's easier.

Syeda Rukhsar

I thought that I'm pretty good at singing and music , but seriously , I didn't understand a thing??????

Mr Flip-flop

So basically you can make your Rubik's cube a random chord progression generator?

Minh Bình

If you want to solve a Rubik cube. Don't watch this video, you need to learn CFOP or ROUX or Petrus or Cross. It are Rubik Method to solve a Rubik.

My Name


Nathaniel S. Son

Somebody make one of those.

Earl Cabusao


Huh? Ummm.... ok

Michael Shevelin

Shout out to Bach, who made this homomorphism possible :) peace

MC King

3:40 As a pianist it intrigues me how you put a major key between two eighth notes.

Firenzar Frenzy

5is is the first Ted-Ed video that I’ve watched and walked away no smarter than I was before. I’m lost


Never felt this bored while watching Ted Ed vedio?


orrr you can just do cfop


I’ve been played like a piano before




Wat r u saying? I can solve rubik's cube and I play an instrument, but WAT

yebebbrhr 10

if u are interested in buying a great rubiks cube through amazon click here https://amzn.to/2IQrXKL

Splitting Productions

Are You RI?
You Are!
You, You RI You ?

MC King

Ok so just a heads-up for whoever hasn't watched the video yet, it isn't actually about playing music with the Rubik's cube, but solving the Rubik's cube similarly to how you play the piano.

Vince Raven Landicho

Mind blown ??


uhh Us Cubers use certain methods to solve it every method in it has an algorithm


now how do i play piano like a rubiks cube

Cube Puzzle Fun

I'll just keep my music playing and my cubing separate. But thanks.


This is more confusing than learning how to solve a 32x32 blindfolded

Pratik Brahma

But... but why tho?

Moksh Patel

Soooooo I'm a beginner pianist and an advanced speedcuber. Just waiting to figure this out

dasari manjula

I dont know how to solve rubik's cube and how to play the piano but i hope to learn them both

Trey Johnston

What if you can't play piano or solve a Rubik cube


Pianist and cuber squad where you guys at?

Birdy _

Any cubers here?


Me: plays piano and is a speedcuber

Hanee Hanee

I now understand the music's inversion and the 4 axioms !! I play piano and cube and I also study mathematics and have interest in it, I was curious about relations with cube and math . I think this video is very helpful. ^^

Koorosh Sadri

Let's head to arXiv.org and search "rubik groups", "music group", or even "high dimensional rubik cubes".

Tanvi Deshpande

at 1:10 they say "1 + 2 is the same as 2 + 1"; I feel like this implies commutativity, which, while true in the case of the integers, does not follow from associativity. Kind of confusing


Everyone, this is about math. So read this comment and stop saying you don’t understand in the comments.


Cubers be like: cube -- piano ??????

Ritesh Ajoodha

How pointless....

DLT Alestell125

Me mind potato

Mukesh Sharma

Thumbnail: how to solve a Rubik's cube as a piano.
Me: I dOn'T kNoW hOw To PlAy OnE.??

Autumn Leaf

I wish there was a how to play the piano like solving a Rubik’s cube


Any Cubers?


C diminshed 7th doesn't have an A. It's a B double flat.

Luca Vincent

thankfully i've studied music theory and group theory so i could understand this lol


What the what

Sumeiyah Syeda

Is it just me or does he sound a bit like a robot

Owen F

How to play a piano like a Rubik’s cube: play nice a carefully and then half the keys pop out across the room

Budhachandra Yumkhaibam

this has gotta be the most negatively received video by ted-ed.

most people miss the point or are pretending they do... ?
I think its about how the faces of a cube can resemble chords in a piano, so one should be able to play all the notes just by scrambling the cube in a deterministic way...
thats exactly what the video is saying
why is everyone so confused

Si Mon

I want to learn how to play a piano like a rubik's cube


or you could just use petrus

Στέργιος Κατσογιαννης

I already know how to solve a Rubic's cube exactly the way I can play a piano!

I just can't do either.

Rohit Patnaik

Ohhhh I got it.
The rubik's cube is just a piano but it is cube and colorful.
That's it. Got it.
Great Video.

David Zeno

Friend: What instrument do you play?
Me: It's complicated..


I feel like I didn’t learn a single thing but I found it very interesting.

Kashap Raina

I don't understand anything of it...thanxx for the info tho ????

Potato Corner

for this past two days i've streamed 28 TedEd vids and therefore realized i belong to the other half of the average iq of humanity

Cheeseburger Monkey

HEY EVERYONE LETS (literally) SCRAMBLE THIS MUSICAL RUBIX CUBE UP AND UNTWIST BACK TO WHERE IT STARTED SO WE CAN MAKE A LOT OF RACKET!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The jimmy rustlers

cfop p= pll permutation of the last layer

Adrian C

who doesn't understand what this means? XD


Cool video but totally off the point in the title, now you know all the elements in the rubicks cube are harmonial just like in music, so now...?

Mr. Editor

I thought it was a Rubik's cover of a popular song..

Nikhil Kumar

1:05 a speedcuber be like: god dammit F3... just do a F' for god's sake

kevin davis

does it have parady

Anshuman Agrawal

As A 25 Second Rubik's Cube Solver, I Can Confirm That I Do NOT Try To Find A Solution For The Rubik's Cube At Once
Instead, We Solve It Step By Step And For Each Step There Are Many More Than 1 Ways Of Doing It

Danny Whittaker

I want to see a video of someone doing this as they solve the cube!

Maria Eduarda Pereira Santana

Me, a musician and a cuber: pretending to understand everything mode on

Jeffery James


China: 1:27

Vardhan Shah

So, for people who don't get it, MAYBE the video is trying to explain that we assume a note on each sticker of a cube. Everytime we rotate the cube, the same chord forms but just one note changes it's octave. So, playing the cube like a piano, we can find where all notes sit, so that each side plays the same chord. As a result, the cube solves


Well i know the basics .... but still don't know how to solve a rubik cube..☺


me: understands the music part of this
me: understands the math

also me: how rubik’s cube?!?!?

derpy oreo

It’s like this video was made for me... I play piano and know how to solve a Rubik’s cube (best: ~1 min)

Maria Mannone

Nice video. In 2013, I had thought of a musical application of the Rubik's cube, the CubeHarmonic, and the idea was later included in a Springer book in 2016 (under the name CubHarmonic). The book had been submitted to the publisher on September 2015, that is, two months before the publication of this video. Here the presentation the idea at NIME in 2018: https://www.nime.org/proceedings/2018/nime2018_paper0076.pdf

RG king Gamer

Plese subscribe my youtube chenal


I think it's the most useless video i have ever seen ???


I get what are you trying to say ,but whats the point?
I can solve a cube and play a piano. But i dont get your point.

Sara Jensen

It's unfortunate that the examples you used for associativity were on cyclic subgroups, all associations performed on powers of a single element. They could easily be confused with commutativity, which is not a group requirement.

Check my first video

time to learn how to play piano


I'm an actual cuber and musician.... (good at cubing but ok at music). This seems like an interesting concept... What if there was a piano with a virtual rubik's cube that can be solved with the notes you play.... Interesting.

Yi Master

Nah, I learned CFOP and solved it under 20s

Sanjana .-.

As someone who can play the piano and solve a Rubik’s cube I am incredibly confused


i studied music theory for eight years and you explained it all in 5 minutes ;-;

Srijan Agrawal

Thank you for the video Michael. Very insightful!


When I go to a job interview, I show them this video and lie and say I understand the content.


Or you could just use petrus

קוביה הונגרית

אחלה ערוץ ממליץ מאוד!!!! מי שרוצה יכול להירשם גם לערוץ שלי יש הגרלות לרשומים.


Or just learn cfop