logo

Oled stock message board

Share on facebook
Share on twitter

More Apple IIc: Apple parts in the dishwasher, a 12v power supply and ROM 4X

50 721 views | 16 Jan. 2020

Time for more Apple IIc

Time for more Apple IIc goodness! In this video I'm the dishwasher to clean the Apple IIc keyboard, building an adapter cable so I can use any off the shelf 12v power supply to run the IIc and installed a very cool ROM mod of the Apple IIc ROM 4.

--- Time Code Jumps

1:06 - Washing the Apple IIc Keyboard

14:46 - Apple IIc 12v PSU adapter

20:48 - ROM 4X for the Apple IIc

--- Video links

Reviving a dead Apple IIc:

https://youtu.be/N8YVX75Qr-0

IIc Power Connector Pin Out:

https://www.raphnet.net/divers/appleIIc/appleIIc_en.php

ROM 4X (and 5X) information:

https://github.com/mgcaret/rom4x

--- Tools

Deoxit D5:

http://store.caig.com/s.nl/it.A/id.1602/.f

Jonard Tools EX-2 Chip Extractor:

https://www.jonard.com/Products/EX-2-DIP-IC-Extractor-24-40-Pins

Wiha Chip Lifter:

https://www.wihatools.com/precision-chip-lifter

Elenco Electronics LP-560 Logic Probe:

https://www.amazon.com/Elenco-Electronics-LP-560-Logic-Probe/dp/B000Z9HAP4

Hakko FR301 Desoldering Iron:

https://www.amazon.com/American-HAKKO-Products-FR301-03-Desoldering/dp/B07BFVFMS9

Rigol DS1054Z Four Channel Oscilloscope:

https://www.rigolna.com/products/digital-oscilloscopes/1000z/

Head Worn Magnifying Goggles / Dual Lens Flip-In Head Magnifier:

https://www.amazon.com/SE-Illuminated-Dual-Flip-Magnifier/dp/B003UCODIA

TL866II Plus Chip Tester and EPROM programmer: (The MiniPro)

https://www.aliexpress.com/item/33000308958.html

TS100 Soldering Iron:

https://www.ebay.com/itm/TS100-65W-MINI-Digital-OLED-Programmable-Soldering-Iron-Anti-static-Structure/113382669853

EEVBlog 121GW Multimeter:

https://www.eevblog.com/product/121gw/

DSLogic Basic Logic Analyzer:

https://www.ebay.com/itm/USB-Logic-DSLogic-Basic-Analyzer-16Ch-100MHz-4Ch-400MHz-Xilinx-Spartan-6-FPGA/202543965672

Magnetic Screw Holder: (also on eBay and Amazon)

https://www.harborfreight.com/4-inch-magnetic-parts-tray-90566.html

Universal ZIP sockets: (clones, used on my ZIF-64 test machine)

https://www.ebay.com/itm/14-16-18-20-24-28-32-40-pin-IC-Test-Universal-ZIF-Socket-Fs/303206721971

RetroTink 2X Upconverter: (to hook up something like a C64 to HDMI)

http://www.retrotink.com/

Plato (Clone) Side Cutters: (order five)

https://www.ebay.com/itm/1-2-5-10PCS-Micro-Scissor-125mm-PLATO-170-Electronics-Cutter-Side-Cutting-Pliers/163458746184

Heat Sinks:

https://www.aliexpress.com/item/32537183709.html

Little squeezy bottles: (available elsewhere too)

https://www.amazon.com/Precision-Applicator-Projects-Quilling-Painting/dp/B0799BZKGZ

--- Links

My GitHub repository:

https://github.com/misterblack1?tab=repositories

Commodore Computer Club (of Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington)

https://www.commodorecomputerclub.com/

Tivoo Pixel Art Display seen in my videos:

https://www.amazon.com/Divoom-Tivoo-red-Tivoo-Bluetooth-Speaker/dp/B07CVGYPTV

--- C64 Stuff

JaffyDOS:

http://blog.worldofjani.com/?p=3544

C64 Test Harness I use:

https://youtu.be/szSzA6T4Kdw

C64 Homebrew cartridge PCB: (used for the DeadTest / Diag Cart I use)

https://www.ebay.com/itm/Commodore-64-C64-C128-NEW-bare-HomeBrew-DEVelopment-cartridge-board-8-32k-2019/162430154398

EasyFlash 3 Multi-Cart:

http://store.go4retro.com/easyflash-3/

--- Instructional videos

My video on damage-free chip removal:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQVjwPsVFd8

--- Music

Eveningland - Nimbus

Francis Preve - Stranger Danger

Intro music by:

Nathan Divino

@itsnathandivino

Outro Music:

Abyss by | e s c p | https://escp-music.bandcamp.com

Music promoted by https://www.free-stock-music.com

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

1980s Fan

love the intro, such a 1980s feel, too bad everyone thinks I'm weird for withing it was the 80s and being 13

Steven Buchanan

A YT'er I was recommended uses LED strip lights, a clear plastic tub and the peroxide to retro-brite stuff indoors. It would make an interesting video.

abc 123

Wd40 also a classic.
Remember it as a kid back in 80s 90s

Bolling Holt

Ha! I had a Mr. Wizard nostalgia moment. Remember how sometimes he'd move to the kitchen to do one of his experiments? This reminded me of that for some reason ;)

Borkzilla

I put an HP 140 oscilloscope that had spent most of its life in the workshop of a heavy smoker through a couple of wash cycles. Worked perfectly after I dried it all out!

jbaass

Have you ever had a chance to see the video quality difference between the 15Pin D Connecter vs the Composite Port? On the 2c's have played with, which were all PAL, the composite is always iffy

jammi

Dishwashers are like that everywhere in the world.

The Lavian

15:54 Love that wire-stripper merch there! Also, if you can believe Hollywood, in the 1985 movie "The Explorers" the kid protagonists were seen running an Apple 2C and a monitor off a standard 9 volt battery! ?

danilko1

Loadrunner was one of my favorite games. I think there was even a remake in the 90's but I can't be sure. What I do know, I haven't found a ported version on GOG or anywhere else. You sure can find Ultima games, but not Loadrunner. What version do you have there? I recall buying mine, in the 80's and it had a splash screen before game play. But I'm not certain anymore. I had an Apple //e from '03 and I had a slight prejudice against the //c, mostly because it didn't have "expansion slots." I also was not a fan of the new design language or the Platinum color scheme.

Arron Somerville

you will need to lubricate all the keys

Mike Flynn

LM311 is a Op-AMP and Chip 555 is a timer, The 555 puts out a Square wave at a Frequency the LM 311 Amplifies and it's sent to the PC speaker. a BUZZER to say, probably a boot up BEEP or a Error Code Beep if no boot.

Károly Sastyin

Great channel. (thumbs up)

wiadroman

It looks pretty cute I must say.

Josh Harris

Love how the bottom label says "The Apple IIc" as opposed to "An Apple IIc"

Brad Marriner

ECG Industrial .. Make RX500-12 Electronics Contact Cleaner with and with out lube from NTE Electronics,Inc. check it out.

Ken Trinh

I know... People dry shoes and carpet in the dryer. Electronic in dishwasher Cancer is waiting...

Cliff Lee

LODE RUNNER for the win!

fluffy

Is deoxit safe to get on your skin like that? I feel like you should be wearing neoprene gloves when you're plopping on those wet switches.

Saiko The Sergal

OH MY GOD THE RICKROLL IN THE BACKGROUND

atariforever2002

Instead of waiting weeks for the right sunny day or building a uv box to try retro-briting that case, you should try just doing the heat only method. I've been hearing that its really the heat and NOT the UV that does the trick on bleaching these yellowed cases...

Asif Alli

Great video!

Jako1987

That has way newer bios than my main computer

gamemusic grotto

Kontakt 61, it cleans and lubricate

EmprsNM

I wish machines had a setting for "Bizarre Wash". I hope you do the arduino drive emulator, how the HD support works has me curious.

TOMMY N .J

I wish i cut that i remember this floppy disc a speciel Sound when is active ??

Oleg Kostoglotov

UXWBill has cleaned keyboards in the dishwasher, it seemed to work for him. I wonder if you could find new, or N.O.S, replacements for the latching switches? I'm not surprised that the switches are having problems, high school computers must live a hard life.

Michael

Great video! Now, retrobrite that machine! I've noticed that the IIc machines seem to look fantastic once they are run through the retrobrite process.

Christian Ivarsson

I wonder how many got triggered by that intro. I love it :D

Steve Vogt

Just keep water away from computer parts!!! That’s the rule. Use the alcohol in the first place!!!! That’s painful to watch! Dishwasher? Never! So unprofessional ?

HylianOverlord

I like Nu-Trol from MG Chemicals for cleaning and protecting from future corrosion. We use it at work for all our industrial connectors and I have seen some of our equipment come back years later with a layer of dust. All you have to do is wash with IPA and the connector still looks like new.

discoHR

I don't have Deoxit but I'm using something similar: Kontakt 61 (contact cleaner). Works great for cleaning and lubricating the keyboard switches.

Crazy Tech Reviews

Adrian's Digital Kitchen

Jose Luis Pelaez

Nice cleaning job with the Apple IIc, but it would be better off removing the yellow color from the case. I do it by cleaning it well before and applying then 30 vol (9%) hydrogen peroxide (h2O2) in cream, covering it with transparent film and exposing it to the sun for an hour. Test in a less visible area first.

chronocide

Also, these keyboards are trash.

Jay Cee

What about a cheap Chinese water-flosser filled with 99% IPA, maybe with some detergent first, and then just straight IPA after to flush?

eagle mode

I noticed you didn't connect the ground in the power supply to anything. Would that not cause problems?

muttBunch

13:51 it’s like Johnny 5 typing :)

Steve Sharp

has anyone seen this guy and the lockpicking lawyer in the same room?

fredy gump

Apple, adding plastic membranes to keyboards since 1983(?).

Vinicius Miguel

As usual Apple fucking the keyboards

TheHighwayMan

Thanx for the video, new subscriber here. Your kitchen looks cosy! :) Gonna 3D print myself one of those dirty/clean signs. Nifty

Oleg Kostoglotov

Marist High School, Eugene, Oregon, it still exists, though no reason why it would not since the machine is from the 1980s.

Jeff Peterson

The engraving looks like Marist High School, which is the local Catholic institution down here.
Cheers from Junction City!

Vodka Lime Soda

Am I the only non-american fangirling over that kitchen! American kitchens are awesome!

redf

The yellow age staining on the plastic case might be removable with either a salt steep/salt paste or possibly net curtain cleaner

Darkstate

Make sure your parts don't contain any aluminium when dishwashing with a powder that contains sodium hydroxide (i.e. soda crystals) as it reacts badly. EDIT: Sodium Hydroxide will dissolve organic based oils and some other non-organic based oils - that probably was the likely cause of the scratchiness if the original lubricant was dissolved.

smsuikup

I like your slippers.

J Williams

The problem with many dish detergents as they quickly oxidize metals, not all are created equal. Any metal framing, contacts, traces etc will deteriorate and corrode. If it's something of value, you'd be better off using plain hot water in a plastic bin that you can seal with a lid, then shake it (LOTS) to agitate the dirt and grime loose, follow that with a "rinse" in a separate sealed container of 99% Isopropyl Alcohol, then place on a towel and let air dry.

Jim Leonard

I literally screamed NOOOOOOO! when you said "I'm going to be using soap", but I'm glad it worked out ok :-) (soap vs. non-soap is like an emacs vs. vi or tabs vs. spaces argument)

Conrad Vogel

yikes, that is a crappy keyboard.

WelcometoVideoCity

Great vid. first one of yours I've seen. Subscribed!

Rick Langston

No retrobright for the case top?

Bob's Barn Workshop

At about 3:30 in the video you ask what those components do... I don't know how they are used in the PC but a 555 is a timer or pulse generator, like the Commodore 556, could be for reset holdoff? And the 311 is a comparator to test if one input is higher than another so it's sort of used like a logic gate to compare levels of two signals.

muttBunch

Back in the late 80s, I had an old AT keyboard that my cat spilled equivalent to 24 ounces of freshly brewed sweet iced tea with roughly a full cup of sugar in it. Problem was, I was unsure when the cat knocked it over. I put it down and had an emergency to run to so I left the house. Anyway, I discovered it when I came back. Keyboards were expensive to replace back then. Immediately I thought of the dishwasher not even caring if it destroyed it since it might have already been destroyed. The sugar solidified the switches themselves, mostly in the middle of the keyboard. After running it through the dishwasher once, it was not good enough. I ran it through the full cycle probably 4 or 5 times but it definitely worked to get the sugar out. Just thought I’d share that :)

jos Touw

I've found blowing with a airline speeds drying.

MrGeekGamer

Using an old gift/reward card as a spudger is a fantastic idea that I hadn't thought of.

Jan Girke

Just use a hair dryer, some books and a timer socket. That way you can get all the water out.

FRIENDLY JAPANESE BUSINESSMAN

Sir, you make 100% top excellent video, many humble Business Greetings from Japan

Dimitris

Years in electronic repairs for me the BEST contact cleaner is this Phillips one never let me down. It says cleaner that it is but have lubricant as well inside. Try it and you will not be disappointed.


https://www.philips.co.uk/c-p/390CCS_00/-

Mark cbay

servisol switch cleaner

Stan Burton

Silicone dry lube is another lube you might try.

Middle Finger Media

Hello Adrian I have 13 spectrum original games I would like to donate to you. I will be throwing them away otherwise. Games are called people from Sirius, attic attacks,oh mummy,fighting warriors,snake,the way of the tiger,fun to learn by shards,Amazon women,punchy,cosmic war toad,defenda by interstellar. All I ask for is an label to send them. You must pay for label to get games for free. email me at [email protected]gmail.com

gbowne1

the 3.5" which is called "Unidisk" does work on the ][c //c, is the same one used with the IIgs.

UpLateGeek

Just re-watching this series now I'm looking at starting work on my IIc. I got it just before xmas for a (relatively) good price, since it's missing the internal disk drive. Unfortunately that also means the metal cage that holds the drive and mounts in the case is also missing, so I would probably have to 3D print a replacement if I ever found a spare drive. Although the keyboard isn't exactly rock solid stable, so it probably would help even without a replacement drive.

I did purchase an Apple external "5.25 drive" previously, under the mistaken impression that I could connect it to my Mac SE or Classic II, so I could use that to load software. But because the internal drive is missing, I probably can't upgrade to ROM version 0, since it removes the ability to boot off the second drive.

I also picked up a Xyber XL800, which is an 800K 3.5" floppy drive designed by a local Australian company. The ebay listing said it was for the "Apple IIc, IIgs and Macintosh". However I did some more digging and found the company is actually still in business (although they've moved into data recovery), and while their website does mention the drive was their first product, it says it was for the Macintosh, so most likely it's not compatible with the IIc. But I digress.

The keyboard in my IIc is interesting because it's not the Alps model, but it's also different from yours in that the caps lock key actually stabilised. Unfortunately that's the only extra key that's stabilised, as they control and right shift keys aren't. And the latching mechanism isn't super reliable in the caps lock either. The whole thing definitely needs a dose of deoxit! ? (Not to mention, RSVP anyone playing the drinking game!)

Also unfortunate is that they RAM is MT branded. I've got a bunch of spare 4264s in an AST (Advantage!) RAM expansion board, but they're also all MT branded! I'm thinking I should just buy a bunch of spares. I'm a little sceptical about buying them from China though, so I'm thinking of ordering from Quest Components, which is the Californian supplier that I got the memory for those 30 pin SIMM PCBs I sent you. International shipping is a bit expensive, but it's probably worth it if I buy a bunch at once considering how expensive it would be buying one or two at a time from Europe or the US plus shipping on each.

Finally, I also plan on building a replacement external power brick, since I don't exactly trust the ancient one that came with it, even though it works. I could easily just make a converter cable like yours for a standard 12V power supply, but I like the idea of designing and printing an enclosure that emulates the original.

Anyway, it was fun watching this series again. Hope you've got more vintage Apple stuff on the way!

EvilJ069

Could you link me to the type of desoldering pump and flux pen you use?

mark goldspink

A picture of the key layout?! Like he hasn't memorised it!

David Thornley

Deox that!

Nakashii

6:20 instantly: those look like codder pins to hold the plunger in

musicgaribiasillo

Thanks for the video! What EEPROM burner and EEPROM(s) do you use?

Ice Cold

So LGR cooked a motherboard on the oven.

You send a keyboard to the dishwasher.

Is the world computers slowly turning into a freaking cooking show?.

Pip's Channel

Interesting, the solder mask and the fonts of the prints on this IIc PCB look very similar to those of an Amiga 500 from the same era.. These boards might've been made/printed by the same company..
Nice video again, Adrian! Love the over-engineering and attention to detail!

cheater00

Lovely video. I have especially liked the music montage at the end when you set up the computer!

charles worton

Hey, Adrian - I quite enjoy your videos, particularly on the computers from the '80's and '90's - really, where home computers all began. I owned a C64, sold it, and now regret doing so. I'd like to replace it; but sadly, vintage C64s are now selling for more than they sold for new. I know I could do software emulation - or do hardware emulation, like the new C64 max - but I actually want a hardware identical machine. And that got me to wondering - can 'new' C64s even be manufactured? Are the chips even available? Because that would be quite a project - to build a hardware identical C64, from the ground up, using new hardware. I don't know if new Commodore 64 motherboards are even available... if not, there might be a cottage industry there for someone.

So there's the question: are the components even available to build new Commodore 64s?

Thanks, guy - Charlie

mac512

Great video. I've two IIc computers with that same keyboard. Those switches are linear switches with an external spring to provide feedback to the user. The problem is that with use, the stems ware out and the feedback becomes awful. I removed all the springs in my IIcs and now the keyboards are usable. Not the greatest, but at least not horrible. By the way, the Caps Lock, 80/40 and the Keyboard are Alps switches. They are almost identical to the ones used in one variation of the Atari XL family of computers. Those switches are serviceable. You can pry them open very easily and, almost always, they can be fixed.

Tallisman1000

I use to do repairs on an Apple IIc for a guy that used it to treasure hunt in Florida from a boat... sonar

Arron Somerville

better washing the keys in baking soda

Shawn Lucas

Does the 1084 monitor work with all old systems? How does it compare to others of the same vintage? What would you suggest as an alternative using modern hardware?

Dylan Shows How

R E T R O B R I G H T T H A T T H I N G

Felice

@Adrian's Digial Basement - I'd be tempted to take a sheet of tyvek or mylar, or maybe scavenge the material from one of those white-outside-dark-gray-inside waterproof delivery envelopes, and cut it to fit where the keyboard's rubber mat currently is. That could make the water barrier thin enough to stop impeding key travel. You might even be able to contour it like the original mat is, with a little heat and a mold made from the original, though that would probably be overkill.

hypercube33

I've dish washed more electronics than most people care to believe. Motherboards, keyboards, video cards, cases, etc.

NEVER use the dishwasher soap - always use something like dawn and just a little dab will do ya otherwise it foams up the whole washer. Dishwasher soap has abrasives and sometimes corrosive stuff in it like bleach.

Also you can turn off heated water and heated dry - these will absolutely ruin your day with plastic parts.

fragglet

The rubber sheet on my IIc was falling apart when I got it so I just removed it entirely and haven't looked back.

John Possum

Have you tried using Fluid Film ? If I recall correctly it is lanolin based which works just like a dielectric grease.
https://www.fluid-film.com/industrial-applications/
About the 3rd entry down the page they talk about using it with electronics.

fu1r4

I should have been using silicon spray ...

Peterj McGee

I don't understand why people are so damn fussy about keyboards the only thing I'm worried about is do the work today function do they do their job if you have a keyboard really is not necessary as long as they do what they're supposed to do if you're that helpless that a little stickiness of a keyboard throws your whole day off well then there's something wrong with you upstairs

pi-duino

What a piece of CRAP !!! This was USELESS and STUPID IDEA !!!!!!!!!!!

Ian Smith

Using sowing machine oil in small amounts will work as a lub for keys etc. This doesn't clog, evaporate or dry out and you only need a tiny amount.

Paul Stafford

To dry or sling water out of parts I have washed, I will wrap them up in a towel, set my washing machine to the spin part of the cycle, put the part in the towel against the wall of the washing tub, put a screwdriver in the safety switch so I can watch it, and then turn the washer cycle on. The washing tub will spin at high speed and the force will draw all the water out of the part into the towel. On less sensitive items, I don't use the towel...This is how I quickly dry my K&N filter for my car after I wash it.... :D

Dan

Never, ever, ever put electronics in a dishwasher. The components were not designed to be exposed to water, at all. It's even worse if the water is hot and the drying function is used. Again the components were not meant to be exposed to that kind of heat either. The water will get into places you won't be able to dry, under IC'S etc. You will shorten the life of the unit, IF it even works afterward. There are many other ways of cleaning PCB'S and other parts that are very safe and will not damage things. I've repaired things to component level for over 20 years. Don't do this. You're taking a huge risk here. I don't care if you've done it before and everything went "fine". It will come back to bite you one day.

dalerimkunas

What is IPA????

Pirfect Pete's Mashup

Not only did you show me how to clean my keyboards, but now I know what the air dry does on my whirlpool dishwasher. Thanks.

Emin Muradov

Silicone Spray is the best thing to use

DAVID GREGORY KERR

Now put it in the hot press for a week or two for it to dry.

year 10 zahalla

try this method https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RCxChcycd4&t=3s

chronocide

I warped a disassembled IBM Model M keyboard case in the dishwasher. I would be careful with this stuff.

Peter Moore

I use Servisol Super 10 Switch Cleaning Lubricant, I've used it to clean many switches, contacts and noisy potentiometers. Pretty cheap too!

WanJockey

I always love your videos. I learned pascal on a 2e. Thank you for sharing.

Shawn Hicks

MT marked chips are Micron Technology.

Velociraptor

Did you ever get around to retrobriting these IIcs?

Tallisman1000

You can clean off that yellow with one of those large pink eraser and 409...

BBfanfun

maybe wash the yellowed case/shell in stead ?
a retro-bright might also bring it back to the original beige.
too bad it's not SCSI; there has to be a simpler solution than Unidisk to adapt an SD card reader ?
maybe plug into IWM chip directly ???
do you have a mouse ?
have you considered converting a dead monochrome Monitor IIc into a more modern made-in-china display ?
that would be an awesome project ! maybe a flat panel ? (old laptop display ???)

Oled stock message board

Share on facebook
Share on twitter

SHOW and TELL 1/27/2021 #ShowandTell

1 068 views | 28 Jan. 2021

Visit the Adafruit shop

Visit the Adafruit shop online - http://www.adafruit.com

-----------------------------------------

LIVE CHAT IS HERE! http://adafru.it/discord

Adafruit on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/adafruit

Subscribe to Adafruit on YouTube: http://adafru.it/subscribe

New tutorials on the Adafruit Learning System: http://learn.adafruit.com/

-----------------------------------------

Kevin (Digi-Key) @0:48 covid tracker on magtag

Trevor @2:50 AR Raspberry Pi pico overlay

Jeff @4:10 smarter text-wrapping library

Noe & Pedro @5:58 3D printed boombox

Melissa @8:43 Titano based PDA

JP @10:30 captouch overlay with stemmaqt

Scott @13:36 raspberry pi pico

Erin @14:55 chandelier

Phil B @16:44 proto-matter tiling

Liz @18:07 pico based midi filer

Prof G. 19:52 mask robot

Dan @22:55 pcb countdown timer

Mark @24:30 photography LED lamps

Oled stock message board

Share on facebook
Share on twitter

25 years GCSP: A "New Normal" for the Planet?

338 views | 3 Dec. 2020

How will environment and

How will environment and security interact in the future?

Some say that COVID-19 constitutes an opportunity for the planet to breathe and for us to think differently about how to address the environment and security nexus. With this expert discussion we aim at giving a forward-looking perspective on climate change, natural resource management and a new paradigm of cooperation for leaders and policy makers of the future.

Head to the GCSP's website: https://bit.ly/2JsHVLz

Ms Anna Brach, Head of Human Security, Climate and Health

Dr. Dhanasree Jayaram, MS, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in the Department of Geopolitics and International Relations and Co-coordinator at the Centre for Climate Studies, Manipal Academy Higher Education (MAHE), Karnataka, India

Mr Mukhtar Abdi Ogle, OGW, EBS, Secretary, Strategic Initiatives Department of Cabinet Affairs Office in Executive Office of the President, Kenya

Mr Alexander Verbeek, Founder, Institute for Planetary Security

Dr Jamie Shea, Professor of Strategy and Security of the Strategy and Security Institute, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

Lizzie Pi

Excellent presentations all around with high hopes for US participation via the Biden administration & addition of John Kerry as climate czar & a seat on the National Security Council. Always appreciate Alex Verbeek’s insights. Thanks, GCSP, for making this available.

lce antonGras

Very happy ?? ??♥️❤️

Human Being

The term "The new normal" sounds like Orwellian double speak to me! I think they really mean this is the new "Orwellian neo-feudalism".

abbe folkseger

51:32 unpleasant voice, not fit for Podcasts